«To date, a wide range of ingredients for meat production with a high proportion of animal proteins are available on the Ukrainian market. Depending on the raw materials used, we can divide them into pork and beef ingredients. While the purpose of use and the means of application are almost identical, these proteins differ by characteristics and condition of the finished meat products.
The difference between pork protein and beef protein is that the entire pork skin is used for the production of a pork protein. The characteristic of the bovine cattle skin structure allows you to use for the production of beef protein only its middle layer, which does not contain so-called ballast proteins, residues of the hair follicles etc. In addition, beef skin contains much less fat and sweat glands than pork skin. As a result, the content of the high-functional collagen protein is about 93-95% and the content of fat is about 1-2% in the physical weight of the finished product compared to 80% of protein and 12-15% of fat in pork.
The technologies for the production of beef and pork protein are significantly different. While alkaline or enzymatic low processing and high water flow for washing and cleaning of the semi-finished products are used in the production of beef protein, mechanical shredding and heating are used to produce pork protein. When using this technology, we get already boiled pork protein.
This circumstance has a significant influence on the boiled meat effect in raw smoked and dry-cured sausages, which is not present in the application of beef proteins. Long-fiber beef protein, for example, in the production of raw smoked and dry-cured sausages allows you to get a great pattern on the cross-section that looks like natural beef. Moreover, when you add 3-4% of dry protein in the finished sausage stuffing, the amount of dry residue sharply increases from 15-16% to 20-22%, thus reducing the ripening time and improving appearance of the finished product (no great moisture loss effect or shell formation).
When using beef protein in boiled and semi-smoked products, it is recommended to use the protein-water ratio 1:10-1:15 in both dry and pellet form. In addition, taking into account the quality of raw meat, the use of bovine protein increases the protein mass share in the finished meat product, improving its organoleptic properties, cutting properties, and making them easier to chew.
Beef collagen protein is also used in the preparation of injection brines for the gourmet group. There is a specially developed small fraction with a fineness degree of less than 220 microns. It shows excellent results, allowing you to increase output without sacrificing homogeneity, to reduce weight loss in heat treatment, and to increase the density of the finished gourmet product.
The amino acid composition of the cooked beef protein is identical to natural meat, with the exception of two amino acids, tryptophan and methionine. Moreover, the degree of hydrolysis of beef collagen protein enables the body enzymes to split and transform it into the energy necessary for human life.
Another distinctive characteristic of beef protein is its thermoreversivity. That is, in contrast to the milk and egg proteins or blood plasma proteins, which form a dense structure when cooling down and do not become liquid again in the subsequent heating, the collagen protein hydrolyzate «glues» all ingredients and gives juiciness and elasticity to the sausage product when heated a little.
The close to the neutral pH level and the odor allow you to mix it with various ingredients at different production stages of the sausage product.»